Share Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share on Twitter Email Pinterest A new study provides evidence that income inequality is related to racial bias in the United States. The research, published in the journal Psychological Science, found that higher income inequality was associated with higher rates of anti-Black bias among Whites.“Around 2010-2011 it seemed to me that social science research was converging with rising popular opposition to inequality, suggesting that inequality may lead to a variety of social harms,” said study author Paul Connor (@PaulrConnor), a PhD candidate in social psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.“I saw this a promising and potentially important topic to investigate. After beginning my graduate program, I realised that although a number of researchers had theorised about a relationship between inequality and racial bias, this hypothesis hadn’t been vigorously tested, and the data required to do so was available. I thought it would make for a neat and interesting project.” Connor and his colleagues compared state-level measures of income inequality to racial bias data from 1,554,109 White people who completed the Implicit Association Test at Harvard’s Project Implicit website.The IAT measures differences in the time taken to categorize faces, depending on whether they are paired with positive or negative words. Faster responses to certain pairings are thought to reflect a stronger automatic association between the concepts.“We observed a small but significant within-state relationship between income inequality and White Americans’ explicit anti-Black racial bias in the United States from 2004-2015. In other words, in years when states were relatively more unequal, their White residents were also more likely to report feeling warmer toward Whites than Blacks, and to report preferring Whites to Blacks,” Connor told PsyPost.The study uncovered a positive relationship between income inequality and explicit racial bias — but not implicit racial bias. White people living in more unequal states were more likely to agree with the statement “I strongly prefer European Americans to African Americans” but they were not more likely to have a higher racial bias score on the IAT.The researchers also failed to find evidence that income inequality was related to searches for the N-word on Google.“The most important caveat is probably that these effects were small. Our data suggests that there may be a relationship between inequality and explicit racial bias, but it definitely does not suggest that inequality is a primary cause of racial bias, or that racial bias is a primary effect of income inequality,” Connor explained.“Instead, our data suggests that there is a robust downward trend in these measures of racial bias over time in the USA that appears relatively unrelated to inequality. Also, while the data seems more consistent with inequality affecting racial bias, it’s important to note that we cannot rule out alternate causal direction, that racial bias may play a role in producing greater inequality.”The researchers noted that even though the effect sizes were small, such effects can accumulate and become meaningful in large enough numbers.The study, “Income Inequality and White-on-Black Racial Bias in the United States: Evidence From Project Implicit and Google Trends“, was authored by Paul Connor, Vasilis Sarafidis, Michael J. Zyphur, Dacher Keltner, and Serena Chen.
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Ahlers India hauled the over-dimensional units from their Bangalore fabrication site 480 km to Chennai port. Ahlers had to conduct a complete route survey prior to the transport, and throughout the Ahlers project team liaised with local police, highway and related authorities to avoid roadside obstructions. The company chartered the vessel Fabulous from its Singapore chartering desk, onto which the nine boiler shells were safely loaded. www.ahlers.com
Government plans for a new round of court fee rises are ‘tantamount to selling justice like a commodity’, the Law Society has said, as the Ministry of Justice acknowledged its plans would be unpopular.Under proposals announced by courts minister Shailesh Vara after parliament rose for the recess, the maximum fee for money claims would rise from £10,000 to £20,000.Fees are currently payable on 5% of the value of the claim up to a maximum fee of £10,000.Personal injury and clinical negligence claims will be excluded from the higher cap and fee remissions for those ‘of limited means’ will still apply. Fees would be introduced to the property, tax and general regulatory chambers.In the property tribunal, the government is proposing fees at low levels for the majority of applications, while setting higher fees for leasehold enfranchisement cases ‘where there are often large sums of money at stake’.Immigration and asylum chamber fees would double, with exemptions ‘to protect the most vulnerable’. There would also be a ‘general uplift’ of 10% to a ‘wide range’ of fees in civil proceedings.The measures would generate an estimated £48m a year in additional income.Vara said that ministers ‘recognise that fee increases are not popular’ but they were ‘necessary if we are to deliver our promises to fix the economy and bring the nation into surplus’.However, Law Society president Jonathan Smithers said the latest plans would ‘cripple’ individuals and small businesses trying to recover money owed to them.The MoJ also announced that, following consultations carried out by the coalition government earlier this year, it would increase fees for issuing a possession claim in the county court from £280 to £355.Fees for general applications in civil proceedings will increase from £50 to £100 for an application by consent, and from £155 to £255 for a contested application. Applications such as injunctions for protection from harassment or violence will be excluded from any increase.Fees for divorce proceedings will increase from £410 to £550. Fee remissions will be available for cases such as those involving women in low-wage households.The three measures are expected to generate more than £60m in additional income each year.Smithers said the ‘punitive’ increases were ‘tantamount to selling justice like a commodity, leaving it out of reach for many ordinary people’.However Rebecca Harling, who works in the private client team at London firm Thomas Eggar, said the court fee rises were ‘necessary’.‘It is right that those using the court system, who can afford to do so, should pay for its use,’ she said. Access to justice, she added, would not be compromised ‘as the fee remission still permits a waiver of fees or discounted court fees for those most in need’.
This unique conference and fair is the central networking platform for European mobility. Last year the German railway industry generated 53% of its sales abroad. Maglev technology for China, Velaro RUS trains for the Russian market and double-deck coaches for Israel show that German know-how and environmentally-friendly ‘Made in Germany’ high-tech products are on top. Experts anticipate that investment in vehicles for European high speed rail transport will double by 2020, by which time the network will have increased to 13?000 km, according to the International Union of Railways. The opening up of Eastern Europe offers new perspectives in freight transport. #railtec will shed light on how rail technology innovations are strengthening European rail transport, and how the resulting growth is benefiting the industry. Discussions at the fair and conference are expected to add fresh momentum and promote rail within European transport policies.Rail technology export successes will be presented at the conference sessions as well as the trade fair. One of the nine forums of the #railtec Transport Policy Conference will revolve around the strategy the German railway industry needs for long-term success in the European market. Dr Ronald Pörner, CEO of the German Railway Industry Association (VDB), is aware of the significance of international business. ‘For the first time, international sales in the German railway industry exceeded domestic sales, by €4·6bn in 2006.’ This shows that the German railway industry ‘is extremely compatible with its globally-offered products and systems’. The industry has been successfully consolidated, and at the same time rail transport is gaining increasing importance in more and more countries as an economic and environmentally-friendly mode of transport. ‘The German industry is benefiting from growing demand for rail technology’, says Pörner, who has for the first time organised an impressive joint stand for leading businesses at #railtec.Economic success is expected, but there are significant obstacles including inadequate rail infrastructure and differing regulations. These will be at the heart of the #railtec conference forum entitled ‘Full speed ahead for rail freight: with international standardisation onto the right track’. Lorries can pass internal EU borders without constraints, but rail is still faced with virtual barriers. ‘National regulations are still impeding free access to the rail network’, explains Stefan Stiefel, Account Director at Angel Trains Cargo. Experts have counted at least 23 different train control and safety systems. All Angel Trains locomotives have been equipped to meet ETCS standards, but ‘this solution is too expensive and we urgently need further standardisation’, according to Stiefel.#railtec2007 attracts high-profile international guests as a platform for cross-border dialogue on transport policy. In addition to Wolfgang Tiefensee, German Federal Minister of Transport, Building & Urban Affairs, four other European transport ministers and deputy ministers have confirmed their participation, including János Kóka from Hungary, Peter Mutafchiev from Bulgaria, Camiel Eurlings from the Netherlands and Vojtech Kocourek from the Czech Republic. They will meet for informal rail-related discussions at #railtec, and will debate current issues facing European transit traffic. THE HIGHEST priority is being attached to mobility without borders, by railway technology manufacturers as well as by operators and policymakers. This topic will therefore take centre-stage at #railtec2007 in Dortmund on November 12-14. Further information about the fair and conference is available at www.railtec.de
Netherlands: On behalf of all operators, NS has awarded Eneco a contract to supply traction electricity in 2015-25. From 2018 the annual requirement of 1·4TWh/year will be entirely supplied from wind power, 50% generated in the Netherlands. North America: DataTraks is to manage Transportation Technology Center Inc’s Trackside Acoustic Detection System, which is installed at 18 sites in the USA and Canada to detect and flaws in tapered roller bearings on passing trains. Poland: Helica is to supply PKP Intercity with 1900 Lenovo A3500 tablet computers at cost of 12·6m złoty to replace paper documents issued to traincrew and speed the dissemination of information. Catering company Wars has ordered 260 tablets for 0·17m złoty. UK: Network Rail has ordered 500 Funkwerk railfocX handheld GSM-R radios from Hima-Sella. USA: The South Shore Line serving Chicago has introduced mobile ticketing provided by Bytemark.
Top 5 most distracted behaviors and how to change themWith the average attention span only lasting eight seconds, and the need to multitask to keep up with an on-the-go lifestyle, it’s no wonder so many of us are easily sidetracked during routine tasks. Mace, a globally recognized leader in personal safety and security, offers valuable tips to combat the five most distracted behaviors.Running with headphonesWhether training for an upcoming marathon or jogging around the block, we often take the time to develop the perfect playlist to keep us going, but don’t consider the risks of tuning out the outside world. Before you press play, consider your personal safety: leave the headphones at home, especially at night. If you’re streaming music through your smartphone, make sure the volume is low enough to hear the traffic around you.Texting while walkingDid you know that nearly 60 percent of pedestrians use a smartphone while crossing the street, according to the National Highway Traffic Administration? Combine that with the average five seconds a driver’s eyes are off the road while texting, a statistic from the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the results can be deadly.Don’t walk and text. If you need to take a call, move to the side until your call is complete. Always be aware of your surroundings. A distracted pedestrian can be an easy target for potential criminals.The National Crime Prevention Council suggests you switch directions or cross the street if you think someone is following you. If the person continues to lurk, move quickly toward an open store, restaurant or lighted house. Add an additional layer of protection by arming yourself with the BoobyTrapBra, a Just In Case bra designed to hold your pepper spray where you can easily reach it, empowering you to live an active life with peace of mind.Walking your dog at dawn and duskFido requires multiple daily walks to stay healthy. If your schedule only allows for exercising him in the early morning or late evening hours, you may find yourself walking in the dark when you’re overtired, which can delay reaction times when they’re most critical.Keep dogs on short leashes for more control in heavy traffic. If you walk your dog in the dark, wear light colored clothing with reflective strips so drivers can see you. Nite Beams are equipped with LED safety lights that provide high and instant visibility up to 1,400 feet or a 1/4 mile from every direction. Available in wrist, arm and leg bands for you, and collars and leashes for your dog, these bands will help to provide safety for everyone.Navigating the parking lotWhether working late or tackling weekly errands, busy parking lots and garages can be dangerous if you are distracted by an armful of bags, children or technology. Leave the balancing act for a secure location to ensure you safely get in your car and on the road.Before making your way to your vehicle, be sure your keys are in hand. Pay attention to your surroundings and other vehicles entering and exiting the lot. Consider walking alongside the aisle instead of taking the stairwell, or ask a security guard to escort you to your car. To buckle a child into a safety seat, get into the backseat with the child and lock the doors rather than doing so from outside the vehicle.Zoning out on public transportationOne of the perks of public transportation is the ability to use your travel time to multitask, like getting a jump start on your day by checking work emails. While you may enjoy not paying attention to the road, don’t let productivity goals get in the way of your personal safety.Ride in the first car or closest to the operator (insider tip: the train conductor is usually in the second car). If you are traveling at night, do your best to avoid dark or isolated stops. Remain aware of your surroundings as you exit, with keys in hand when you depart from the stop or station. For added protection, include the compact and easy-to-use Mace Brand KeyGard on your key ring.Whether walking, running, driving or riding, incorporate these tips into your everyday habits to help keep yourself safe and secure throughout the day. brandpointcontent.com